Wednesday, January 17, 2018

25 - 37% of the total prison population in Malaysia are innocent? Poor - so cannot afford bail?

Between 25 - 37% of the total prison population in Malaysia are innocent - they are remand or pre-trial prisoners, and they are most probably there in prison because they are POOR(or come from poor families) and cannot afford Bail? Remember that everyone is presumed innocent until they are proven guilty in a court of law.  

In 2015, for example, there were a total of 51,602 persons in Malaysian prisons, and about 25.8%(13,000) of them were remand pre-trial prisoners. This is shocking. Now, there are about '...59,600 convicts in prisons in this country.

This numbers may not even include the persons being detained in police lock-ups, and those being detained and restricted under Detention Without Trial laws like POCA, POTA and DD(SPM)A...

The POOR man who cannot afford BAIL will continue to languish in Prison as a remand prisoners until his criminal case is conducted and ended. At the end of the day, he may be found innocent, and will be released. The RICH on the other hand, will be out on BAIL continuing to enjoy life to the fullest (although in some cases, there may be a Bail condition preventing him/her from leaving Malaysia - but this happens in select few cases).

Malaysia needs to have a policy and law change so that no one who has yet to be convicted and sentenced by the courts after a full trial, should be detained in Prisons as remand or pre-trial prisoners. They may be POOR - so maybe, we may need to reduce Bail amounts - or maybe come up with a new system which does not require the immediate payment/deposit of bail sums... Maybe shifting it to a 'Bond' or an agreement by the sureties, etc to pay ONLY if the person released on Bail breaks the condition of the bail and not turn up in court on the fixed date for a very good reason. Gross injustice when the poor are denied their liberty before being found guilty, convicted and sentenced.

Police Bail currently is a 'promise to pay in the event the Bail condition is breached' - so no need to raise or deposit any money. In court, however, the money needs to be produced and delivered - and it cannot be touched or used until usually the trial is over. The problem that many a poor man faces is the difficulty in finding the surety(PENJAMIN) - how many can afford really to give the money(which becomes inaccessible) until trial is over, and also face the risk that they may just lose it all?

When a person is in detention, it also affects also their family and dependents including children. It affects the employment, the income, the business...etc..If one is surviving selling food, even a detention period of a single day can significantly affect the family income...Remember also, that in Malaysia there is still no provision for paid 'administration of justice' leave for workers - When one is even called to attend at the Labour Department or the court as a witness, one has to take one's own annual leave - or unpaid leave....

Now many a poor person, because of their reality, may even choose to plead guilty even when their innocent to practically save time - serve the sentence and move on. This is also an injustice. Trials also need to be expedited, besides making it easier for per-convicted prisoners to be able to be FREE.

Voting Rights - Will these pre-convicted and sentenced prisoners, including those under Detention Without Trial laws, those in police lock-ups on remand get their voting rights? Are they been provided the right to be postal voters? If for a person sentenced to prison, should ,he not as a Malaysian still accorded the right to VOTE - there is nothing in the sentences that now deny him/her the right to VOTE. A bankrupt can still vote - so, why should a person serving a prison sentence not be accorded not just the right to VOTE - but the Opportunity to vote, maybe as a postal voter?

PUBLIC funds and resources is also wasted when persons who should not be in prison is languishing in it another way of benefiting some contractors who supply prison with food and other necessary services.

25-30% of the prison population is high - and think of the amount of money that Malaysia could save.

POVERTY - is that the reason why these people resorted to crime? Purse snatching, petty theft, robbery ...these are just some examples of poverty-linked crimes...We really need STATISTICS - the number of such offences in the different areas - that will also help government focus their effort to help these poor by giving them better income or sufficient income which will reduce crime. An 'index' is not so useful...

If the reason for the increase of crime is poverty...then, is it not a failure of the UMNO-BN government ...or maybe some Opposition State governments? Well, that is why we need the actual statistics of crimes...for the different towns, districts, states...and also the place of residence of these perpetrators...Important facts needed not just to lay blame ...but also responsibility of government - be it the Federal government, State government or Local government? 

The ethnicity of the persons in Malaysian prisons is also very disturbing - There are about 50% Malays in Malaysia, but there are about 70% Malays in the Malaysian prisons. Is this not a definite failure of UMNO and/or the UMNO-BN government? More so, if these Malay prisoners are there because of poverty-linked crimes. We will discuss that in greater depth in a later post...

Director of Inmate Management of the Prison Department, SAC Nordin Muhamad said of the total, 71.3 percent of those in prison are Malays and 66 per cent of them are between 22 and 40 years old.

Source of Prison population data: World Prison Brief  
Go visit the Source site, as our effort to cut and paste tables and graphs here below still makes it difficult to see the full table/graph.


Ministry responsible
Ministry of Home Affairs
Prison administration
Malaysia Prison Department
Contact address
Prison Headquarters, Bukit Wira, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
+60 3 8732 8000
+60 3 8739 9205
Head of prison administration (and title)
Datuk Wira Zulfikli bin Omar
Commissioner General
Prison population total (including pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners)
51 602
at 4.10.2016 (Ministry of Home Affairs)
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
based on an estimated national population of 30.86 million at October 2016 (from United Nations figures)
Pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners (percentage of prison population)
Further Information
Female prisoners (percentage of prison population)
Further Information
Juveniles / minors / young prisoners incl. definition (percentage of prison population)
Foreign prisoners (percentage of prison population)
Number of establishments / institutions
(2015 - 35 prisons, 4 reformatory centres, 5 special recovery centres, 3 Henry Gurney centres)
Official capacity of prison system
45 310
Occupancy level (based on official capacity)
Prison population trend
(year, prison population total, prison population rate)
2000 27,358 116
2002 28,804 118
2004 43,424 171
2006 42,389 161
2008 39,440 145
2010 38,387 137
2012 36,608 126
2014 47,986 160
Further information
Year Prison population total
2000 27,358
2002 28,804
2004 43,424
2006 42,389
2008 39,440
2010 38,387
2012 36,608
2014 47,986
Prison population total
Year Prison population rate
2000 116
2002 118
2004 171
2006 161
2008 145
2010 137
2012 126
2014 160
Prison population rate

Pre-trial/remand prison population: trend

The table below gives an indication of the recent trend in the pre-trial/remand prison population. The final row shows the latest figures available.
It consists of the number of pre-trial/remand prisoners in the prison population on a single date in the year (or the annual average) and the percentage of the total prison population that pre-trial/remand prisoners constituted on that day.
The final column shows the pre-trial/remand population rate per 100,000 of the national population.
Number in
of total
prison population
population rate
(per 100,000 of
national population)
It should be noted that the number of pre-trial/remand prisoners fluctuates from day to day, month to month and year to year. Consequently the above figures give an indication of the trend but the picture is inevitably incomplete.
The pre-trial/remand population rate is calculated on the basis of the national population total. All national population figures are inevitably estimates but the estimates used in the World Prison Brief are based on official national figures, United Nations figures or figures from other recognised international authorities. 

Female prison population: trend

The table below gives an indication of the trend in the female prison population. The final row shows the latest figures available.
It consists of the number of female prisoners in the prison population on a single date in the year (or the annual average) and the percentage of the total prison population that female prisoners constituted on that day.
The final column shows the female prison population rate per 100,000 of the national population.
Number of
of total
prison population
Female prison
population rate
(per 100,000 of
national population)
The number of female prisoners fluctuates and so the above figures give an indication of the trend but the picture is inevitably incomplete.
The female prison population rate is calculated on the basis of the national population total. All national population figures are inevitably estimates but the estimates used in the World Prison Brief are based on official national figures, United Nations figures or figures from other recognised international authorities.
(If the rate were calculated on the basis of the number of females in the national population it would of course be approximately double the figure in the final column).
Year Prison population total
2000 27,358
2002 28,804
2004 43,424
2006 42,389
2008 39,440
2010 38,387
2012 36,608
2014 47,986
Prison population total
Year Prison population rate
2000 116
2002 118
2004 171
2006 161
2008 145
2010 137
2012 126
2014 160
Prison population rate

Some 33,500 convicts in prison because of drug abuse

Some 33,500 convicts in prison because of drug abuse
Of the total, 71.3 percent of those in prison are Malays and 66 per cent of them are between 22 and 40 years old.
KUALA LUMPUR: Some 33,500 of the 59,600 convicts in prisons in this country are because of drug offences and they represent 56 per cent of the total number of prison inmates nationwide.

Director of Inmate Management of the Prison Department, SAC Nordin Muhamad said of the total, 71.3 percent of those in prison are Malays and 66 per cent of them are between 22 and 40 years old.
"What is worrying is the involvement of our citizens in drug abuse. Only 11 per cent of prisoners due to drug offences are foreigners," he said while sitting as a panel member of an anti-drug forum, here today.
The forum organised by the Malay Consultative Council in collaboration with the Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation (MCPF), the Malaysian Drug Prevention Association (Pemadam) and Utusan Melayu Bhd, was attended by over 100 participants specially invited to find a more effective plan to fight drug abuse.

Meanwhile, principal assistant director (International) of the National Anti-Drug Agency (AADK) Hamizan Haidzir expressed concern over the rising number of drug abuse cases in this country.

In 2016 (last year), the number of arrests for drug offences stood at 30,844 people compared to only 26,000 in 2015 (the previous year).

"Drug abuse is on the rise throughout the world, particularly with the entry of synthetic drugs which have negative effects on the central nervous system."

Hamizan said the authorities will intensify its efforts to fight drug abuse by increasing the frequency of raids on premises with the aim to trace and arrest those involved in drug abuse.

-BERNAMA- Astro Awani, 14/6/2017

Death Penalty - Dangerous when Judge, whose validity of appointment being challenged, was in panel that upheld death penalty of 9?

When the Federal Court recently decided to uphold the death penalty of 9 persons, another concern also rises when Chief Justice Md Raus Sharif was part of the 5-man panel of this Federal Court Panel. Md Raus ended his term of office as Federal Court Judge and Chief Justice when he achieved the age of 66 years and 6 months on 3/8/2017.

Thereafter, he was re-appointed as Federal Court Judge, and also the Chief Justice. There are allegations that his continuing to be Federal Court Judge and/or Chief Justice was unconstitutional, and the Malaysian Bar, amongst others, have taken this matter to the courts. Now, if the courts ultimately decides that it was unconstitutional, it will reasonably mean that all that was done by this judge in his capacity of Federal Court Judge, and/or Chief Justice after 3/8/2017 would be such, it really would have been best if Md Raus Sharif not be part of any Federal Court panel...

A gross injustice in death penalty cases, if the convicted are EXECUTED before the validity of his continuing to be Federal Court Judge, and/or Chief Justice  beyond 3/8/2017 is finally determined and settled in the courts or otherwise. 


Court should not uphold death penalty for Lahad Datu nine

Published:     Modified:

LETTER | Madpet (Malaysians Against Death Penalty and Torture) is disappointed that the Federal Court, on Jan 18, decided to uphold the Court of Appeal decision to sentence to death the nine Filipino men for waging war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong in relation to the Lahad Datu intrusion about four years ago. Earlier in February 2017, the Court of Appeal overturned the natural life sentence meted out by the Kota Kinabalu High Court on July 26, 2016 on these nine men, and sentenced them to death.

Madpet is also shocked that Chief Justice Md Raus Sharif chaired this Federal Court five-judge panel who heard and decided on this appeal. The validity of CJ Md Raus Sharif continuing to be a Federal Court Judge and Chief Justice past March 8, 2017, the day his term in office came to an end when he achieved the age of 66 years and six months, is currently being challenged in court by amongst others, the Malaysian Bar, as being unconstitutional.

As such, Madpet is of the view that he should not have sat on any panel of the Federal Court and decide on any cases until this matter is finally resolved by the courts. If the courts later decide that his extended appointment as Federal Court Judge and/or Chief Justice is unconstitutional, null and void, then all decisions of the Federal Court in which he was part of will reasonably be considered invalid.

Madpet is also of the opinion that when Md Raus' (photo) appointment was extended beyond his last date in office, this was also a violation of the principle of security of tenure, which is a safeguard to guarantee the independence of the judiciary. If the term of judges can be extended beyond the fixed retirement age by the actions of the Prime Minister, the King and/or some other, the very intention behind the security of tenure principle is violated.

2013 Lahad Datu incursion

This case is in connection with what happened in February-March 2013, when a group, comprising over a hundred people, who were allegedly followers of self-proclaimed Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul Kiram III (photo) entered Sabah allegedly on a mission to ‘reclaim’ part of Borneo as their ancestral land. The Lahad Datu situation reportedly saw a total of 68 deaths – 56 from the Sulu sultanate, nine from the Malaysian authorities and six civilians.

At the Kota Kinabalu High Court in 2016, the court of first instance where the trial was conducted, Judge Stephen Chung, after hearing the case, having the benefit of hearing the witnesses and considering the evidence elected to not sentence the nine to death, but to life imprisonment.

‘…In his judgment, Chung said there was no evidence that the accused were directly involved in the skirmishes that occurred during the intrusion, nor was there proof that they had killed any member of the security forces in cold blood or injured anybody. He noted that the key persons in the intrusion, such as Datu Agbimuddin Kiram and 'General Musa' were not brought to justice.

"It is indeed an odious task to pass the appropriate sentence for the accused convicted under Section 121 of the Penal Code.

"The offence had badly affected the lives of the residents of Kampung Tanduo and those who resided in the nearby villages, as well as the families of the deceased security personnel," he said…’, as reported in 2016. The said nine persons were as such sentenced not to death, but to life imprisonment by the court.

It was also reported that the lawyer representing these accused persons that pleaded guilty also ‘told the court that his clients had been promised jobs and identity cards by their leader, General Musa, the chief of staff of Datu Agbimuddin Kiram who was a brother of the self-styled Sulu Sultan,’ according to the Star on Feb 24, 2016.

It was also reported that ‘although they admitted to being members of a terror group known as the Royal Sulu Force (RSF), they were not involved in its militant activities. He said this was consistent with their statements recorded individually before a Sessions Court judge in Lahad Datu shortly after their arrests sometime in March 2013…’

As such, Madpet is of the opinion that these nine persons were certainly not deserving of the death penalty.

‘Prisoners of war’ or ordinary criminals?

Further, upon a perusal of the history and background of the whole conflict, as reported in the media, questions arise as to whether this should have been considered to be a ‘war’, and, if so, whether it is proper in such cases to sentence ‘prisoners of war’ to death.

This seems to be not a simple case of a group of criminals ‘waging war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the King)’. It was reported also that the reason for the incursion was for the purpose of ‘reclaiming’ part of Borneo as their ancestral land, that they claimed belonged to the Sulu Sultanate that was ‘….seized by the British from their government.. ‘. It was further reported by Astro Awani on Dec 30, 2013 that Malaysia had been paying annual sums to the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu, which was considered by them as ‘rent’.

Determining finally the very nature of that intrusion that lasted about a month is material in determining whether the arrested(or the captured) were prisoners of war or simple criminals.
  • As such, Madpet urges that a moratorium on execution be imposed for these nine persons, and that it be best that their death sentence be commuted to imprisonment;
  • Madpet also urges that the Sabah dispute concerning the Sulu Sultanate and Malaysia be finally resolved;
  • Madpet also calls on Chief Justice Raus Sharif to not be part of any Federal Court panel deciding on any cases, especially death penalty cases, until the question of the validity of his position as Federal Court Judge and Chief Justice beyond Aug 3, 2017 is finally resolved;
  • Madpet reiterates the call for Malaysia to impose a moratorium on all executions, commute all death sentences and abolish the death penalty in Malaysia.

Read statement and related information at 

Monday, January 15, 2018

ELECTION MANIFESTO - Vague pronouncement or Detailed Commitments?

MANIFESTO - What is the Opposition Parties' Manifesto for the Upcoming Elections? It must be comprehensive dealing with a variety of issues - it must not be simply 'slogans' that are vague with no specific details... ( the way, the Pakatan Harapan has still not issued their Manifesto ...that's why we cannot find it on the internet)

In Malaysia, as some political parties come together to form a 'COALITION' or even an 'Electoral Pact' - it is important that there is NOW an agreement with regard to many issues...

The problem with the previous 'Pakatan Rakyat' seemed to be that after the elections, the running and administration of the various states won by the Pakatan Rakyat seem to have been left just to the Menteri Besar/Chief Minister that was elected - and problems emerged as some states like Kedah(under a PAS MB) seems to have simply done many things including policies that swayed from what PR, or the parties in it, pronounced...and stood for. So, how do we ensure that this does not happen again...

We need a detailed Manifesto ...not simply something vague just about 1MDB, FELDA, etc... 

Will the Opposition when they win, investigate and take action against members of the previous government, their cronies and even public servants who did wrong ...or will it be simply 'Forgive' and move on...Where was the EXPOSE and the prosecution ...when the Opposition won in Penang and Selangor....?

Malaysians are not stupid – we demand detailed assurances  by the Opposition coalition, Opposition parties and other political parties  in their Election Manifestos…

Detention Without Trial Laws – POCA, POTA, DD(SPM)A. Will the Detention Without Trial Laws be immediately abolished, and the current victims be immediately released? When? Well, it should be done within 100 days…Some argue, that some of these people may be guilty of a crime – well, then charge them and try them in an OPEN COURT. Remember that even preparing or instigating a crime is already an offence in the Penal Code…and they could be charged, tried and convicted if proven guilty.

Freedom of Expression, Opinion,…. Abolish Sedition Act… Abolish laws that undermine these Freedoms

– Local Council Elections…within 100 days. 
- Senators to be elected by the people …so Senatorial Elections…
- Elections of local community leaders by the community – kampong, kampong orang asli, Taman, …All these can be done in 100 days …Government will deal with matters concerning these communities through the Elected representatives
[*An elected MP and/or ADUN, whether they wre in the party/ies governing the State or not, will be accorded a right to sit in Local Councils as an Observer, with a right to be heard...which is logical since he/she is the elected peoples' representative]

HEALTHCARE – Now, Malaysians are still paying for healthcare …Most obvious is heart healthcare …Now, the IJN(Institute Jantung Negara) charges tens of thousands ringgit….if you are not a public servant or a government pensioner – so, it affects all other Malaysians. Immediate policy could be no more than RM1,000 for any healthcare procedure….ultimately, this should be FREE

EDUCATION – one thing could be FREE education until higher education – not just University…but also vocational, technical and other forms of higher education. FREE education in ALL government schools, colleges, universities and other institutions of higher education…We cannot force this policy of ‘free education’ on private companies yet…but this may come later…

Companies – Government Owned(or Linked) – Immediately the requirement that they will have to be audited by the Federal/State Auditor General, who will have to present the said report to Parliament/State Legislative Assembly ….Now, this is not about just presenting Audited Accounts(but more importantly the Auditor General’s REPORT about actions that have ‘wasted monies’ and other wrongs. (Petaling Jaya Local Council discloses only the audited accounts BUT not the report of mismanagement, loss of monies, questionable transaction)… The continued monitoring by Parliamen/State Legislative Assembly Select Committees of GLCs….It is after all the company of the Malaysian people and profits should flow back to government for the benefit of ALL Malaysians.

Companies – Government Owned(or Linked)Salary and allowances for Directors, etc …wrong if they are being paid too high a salary or allowance…the maximum’s should be fixed…maybe same as public servant salary scale…but certainly not higher than the pay of the Prime Minister or a Menteri Besar. The more you pay the less the profits of these companies – hence, the lesser profits for the people of Malaysia. List of Government-Owned/Linked Company should be provided, together with list of major shareholders, and profits made by these companies that flowed back to Malaysian people…No ADUN, MP, Senator, Public Servant should be paid allowances as Directors – that monies must go back to the government not to them personally, save for maybe transport allowances and such – WHY? They are already PAID public servants be it MPs, Senators, ADUNs and/or public servants.

FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY Repeal of the Peaceful Assembly Act and provisions in other Acts likes Universities and University Colleges Act that require application of permits/licences/permissions…before people can exercise their right to peaceful assembly…Police duty shall be to ensure that this right is exercised uninhibited…

FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION – The government shall only act if the Society or Trade Union commits a crime – it shall no more control the objective, running and/or other actions of a Society. Society/Trade Union/Cooperative .Registration will be done fast, not later than two(2) weeks. Now, even when members agree to amend Constitution, it does not come into force until the Registrar of Society(or Registrar of Trade Union) approves it – WHY? Even if members want to increase membership and/or other fees payable by members, it cannot be implemented until the ‘Registrar’ approves – WHY? If members have an issue with the society/Trade Union/…, then they can take action …the REGISTRAR(or government) should not act on its own. Example, if DAP members questioned the validity of an elections, then the members will take the issue to court for a determination whether election valid or void – not the Registrar. Control of the GOVERNMENT in the running of any association will be removed…the power is returned to MEMBERS and members only…

Public Transport – Licensing will not be denied…Now, the licensing of bus services are controlled by the Federal Government – so much so, even State government have no power in approving application for town bus services and/or even bus services within the State. Licensing of public transport services will be liberalised, and the power will be given to the State and/or Local Council, if the services are for the people of the said Local Council and/or State whether the services extend beyond the Local Council/State boundaries. Public transport will be kept affordable, and the government will provide subsidies and/or provide the services themselves, if need be. Metered taxi services will be made available all over Malaysia, with a phone in capability to get a taxi – and the government shall fix the rates(at least the maximum rates)…Maybe, like the 999 call in service for police/fire department - we should have a number for people to call in to get a taxi(Government could set up and run this service especially since it is now not not practical for taxi services operating in small towns and rural areas to do it themselves...)

Radio/Television/Newspapers/Magazines Licenses will be given freely – and actions will be taken only if a crime is committed. Now, the Opposition also do not have a radio station or a television station…preventing the people from getting access to alternative views and opinions. It is embarassing. Malaysians should have the right to information - including different views and opinions. Our radio station generally give us songs and music - good if we had stations that give us knowledge about rights, and discussion of issues...Do we want Malaysians who are aware and 'educated' about different views and options...?

SPORTS – There will be PUBLIC football fields, basketball courts, squash, swimming pools that are free or with minimum charges built in every district in Malaysia. Now, there are very few such fields and sports facilities for the public in most towns in Malaysia. Most sport facilities are in schools ...we need public sport facilities, which people can use in every town in Malaysia??

STATE – FEDERAL – Power now rests too much with the Federal Government especially in the Peninsular. One problem is the INCOME available to State governments to provide for development and maintenance of facilities within the State including even roads, etc… Law will be amended, to allow State governments to get a fixed portion of income and corporate taxes collected in Malaysia, whereby one solution will be the allocation of a certain percentage of taxes to the States based on the population, which could be at least 25% of Federal ipersonal and corporate income tax collected. Similarly, 25% of monies collected by Local Council will also be allocated to the State coffers.

GRASS CUTTING AND GARBAGE COLLECTION – It was before done by Local Council, but now UMNO-BN seemed to have shifted control to the Federal Government, who has the power to choose and appoint contractors. This power shall be reverted back to Local Councils. What is the rate of payment of cutting grass  beside the road for 1 Km per month? Some said that it may be about RM2k? Well, if that contract could be given to kampung committees and town committees...who could use the poor in the community - would it not effectively solve income problems of the poor? Local government could simply monitor...

Barangan Rakyat 1Malaysia -  Good policy to ensure availability of AFFORDABLE basic food and related matters to ensure availability of such items to especially to the poorer Malaysians - But UMNO-BN implementation policy was wrong...when such products could only be got from these KEDAI R1M?  Government will ensure availability of such products including rice, floor, cooking oil, cooking gas, salt, soap, toothpaste, cleaning fluids/poweders, eggs, bread....These items shall be produced by the Government and made available to ALL retailers, including small shops through government suppliers at a reasonable rate ...who will then be able to sell to the consumer at the stipulated price. [Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia will be abolished]

The government will RESTORE and expand the list of permanent Price Controlled Items including chicken, certain fish, fish cakes, vegetables, etc (which the UMNO-BN government has removed). The government will fix the cost imposed by suppliers to final retailers as well to ensure that the final retailer still enjoys a reasonable profit. Suppliers shall be BOUND to supply such items to all retailers - and not deny supply for whatever reason.

KLINIK Rakyat 1Malaysia - Government will ensure that there are government clinics with DOCTORS providing 24 hour service to all people, not more than than 50 Km in rural areas, and not more than 10 Km in urban centres, that will be able to provide healthcare. Currently, these UMNO-BN government clinics only have a medical assistant manning it, with the ability to not even provide required emergency healthcare. Some of these UMNO-BN government clinics that are within 10-20 Km from government hospitals will be shut down. Ambulances will be made available to transport people in need of medical treatment.

Bantuan Rakyat 1 Malaysia - Noting that many Malaysians, and their families, are in need of monthly financial assistance - the government will enact a LAW that provides for regular monthly financial assistance for the poor. The poorer families will receive more financial assistance. The government will make it a RIGHT in law - not like the current UMNO-BN government, which is a discretion of the government on a year to year basis - not a RIGHT in law.

FELDA - the scheme of providing land to the poor and landless, to be able to earn and generate income, and eventually become financially independent and out of poverty which was discontinued by the UMNO-BN in the 1990s will be revived.

MINISTERS and Ministries - The government will re-structure and reduce the number of Ministers and Ministries to save monies and make government more efficient. UMNO-BN, especially under the current PM have been simply increasing the number of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

Parliamentarians and ADUNs - there will be an allocations for the rental and maintenance of offices in the constituencies, including staff (PAs, Research Assistants and Drivers) to improve the service and accessibility of peoples' representative to the people. FULL TIME MPs/ADUNs - We pay them so much but so many are not around doing their MP/ADUN work...because they are still busy in their own personal business/profession. Some even miss Parliamentary session - and even when present, I wonder how many are really prepared and know what is being discussed - many are so silent. Many are afraid to have dialogues with their constituencies - is it the fear that when asked questions, their ignorance of issues will be revealed?

REMOVAL OF PARLIAMENTARIANS/ADUNS - A law will be enacted giving the people of a constituency to remove their elected representatives. One possibility is a petition signed by at least 50% of the registered voters in a Constituency. 

WORKERS - Government shall ensure REGULAR EMPLOYMENT (employment until retirement/retrenchment/termination for disciplinary reason). Will seek to reduce, limit and/or abolish precarious employment like short-term contracts and 'contractor for labour' system.(See other earlier posts about what need to change in terms of worker and trade union policy and laws in Malaysia)

MINIMUM WAGE - A comprehensive Minimum Wage System, will be enacted depending on the area, be it rural or in urban centres, type of employment, taking into consideration cost of living of the particular area....It shall apply primarily for employers of more than 15 employees. Smaller employers in smaller businesses will be allowed to use profit sharing scheme. 

The UMNO-BN approach was to lump all employers in ONE category, noting that it is very unfair for smaller employers/businesses like sundry shops, mechanics, operating in smaller towns and rural areas who really do not make that much monthly profits. All employers were obligated to also pay the same Minimum Wages is wrong and has resulted in the closure of such businesses...Income/Profits of businesses shall also be a consideration in determining obligation to pay minimum wages...Those not obligated to pay minimum wages shall have a profit sharing scheme with workers, ensuring that workers earn no less than 40% of the profits of the said businesses. UMNO-BN government strategy was smart - because then a lot of employers(many of whom from these smaller businesses would protest such increased Minimum Wages) - so the BIG employers with large profits also managed to keep Minimum Wages low. It would have been smarter if a higher Minimum Wage was imposed on the bigger companies with higher income and profits...especially these foreign companies?

COMMERCIAL RATES for the 1st, 2nd and higher floors of shop lots used for residential purpose shall be abolished. This will include commercial rates for electricity, water, telephony, sewage treatment and Local Council Rates. Residential Rates will be charged. This, is in view, that after GST many of these shop lots are currently unoccupied and not anymore being used for commercial purposes. Such a move, will not just assist property owners, bust also make more affordable housing for people...and will also reduce cost of living, as many of these shops are in town or near towns. It will also increase security for premises, which now is generally people-free during non-working hours. Look at the number of unoccupied shop lots in a town like Temerloh and much wasted space that could have been used for housing if only the occupants had to pay residential rates.

OFFICIAL SECRETS ACT - All documents, including Tol Agreements and Auditor General's report on 1MDB, shall be declassified. All remaining documents, including those relating to national security, shall be declassified and made available to the public after a lapse of thirty(30) years.

ELECTION MANIFESTO - IS IT JUST 'MERE PUFF' - OR 'PROMISES' THAT CANNOT BE ENFORCED BY LAW BY A CITIZEN'? It should not be...It must be a binding agreement that should be enforceable by the people...No use if it simply is a 'LIE' to get votes...but after winning the Elections, it is forgotten. Remember the promise for Local Council Elections ...So, maybe, at the very least it must be a formal agreement between the various political parties...

After the General Elections, how do the political parties ensure that the MPs/ADUNs and PM/MB/Chief Minister do what was promised...or at the very least try their best to do it...We need the political parties to monitor the different governments it forms alone(or with other parties), and as such we need a COUNCIL to monitor the different governments, and it is best that this COUNCIL is made up by the different political parties, their leaders preferably..

So, there must be a COUNCIL of party leaders --- who will oversee and monitor every PM, MB, Chief Minister ...I would suggest that this COUNCIL will not only monitor but also ADVISE where needed...and preferably made up by the leaders of the different Anwar, Mahathir, Lim Kit Siang, Tan Kok Wai, Muhyiddin... If party leaders end up being PM or MB, it becomes more difficult for the political party to monitor governments led by their own party supreme leaders??? 

Some Opposition coalition is spending too much time on deciding Prime Ministerial candidates ...and Menteri Besar candidate...or the number of seats....WHAT IS IMPORTANT IS WHAT WILL THEY DO FOR MALAYSIA OR A PARTICULAR STATE IF AND WHEN WE VOTE THEM INTO GOVERNMENT.

A simple..vague manifesto will not do...we need more details...Look for example the Manifesto of the Labour Party in UK...

We do not want 'business as usual' after the upcoming General Elections ...only different are the people with the power, or maybe just 'new cronnies'...

* The above is just some suggestions as what should be in a Manifesto - still incomplete as we did not look at so many other issues of concern like Education, Judiciary, Police, etc...

The parties that will be standing for elections are made up of people who know more and should highlight what else that they will change...